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Accueil Nota Bene Cancer V2 Numéro 132 du 17 April 2012 Prévention

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Nota Bene Cancer Numéro 132 du 17 April 2012 RSS

Prévention

Nutrition et prévention

Menée sur des rats exposés au 1,2-diméthylhydrazine, cette étude montre qu'une supplémentation en graines de moutarde peut rétablir l'équilibre du système immunitaire et inhiber la carcinogenèse du côlon

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    Menée sur des rats exposés au 1,2-diméthylhydrazine, cette étude montre qu'une supplémentation en graines de moutarde peut rétablir l'équilibre du système immunitaire et inhiber la carcinogenèse du côlon

    “Dietary Mustard Seeds (Sinapis alba Linn) Suppress 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Immuno-Imbalance and Colonic Carcinogenesis in Rats”

    • Zhu, Minggu;Yuan, Haifeng;Guo, Wen;Li, Xinyan;Jin, Lin;Brunk, Ulf T.;Han, Jiahuai;Zhao, Ming;Lu, Yawei

    In a Wistar rat model, prolonged supplementation of mustard seed (MS) to the diet significantly ameliorates the induction of colorectal carcinomas by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The expression of the splenocyte major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) was found significantly enhanced, whereas that of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) was significantly decreased. Compared to that of control animals, the proportion of spleenic B- and dendritic cells (DC) was amplified in the MS group. The expressions of MHCI, as well as that of MHCII, were increased in DC cells; whereas in B cells, MHCI expression was augmented but that of MHCII moderately decreased. The percentages of CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD28+ cells were increased in the MS group, while the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ subset was depressed. Plasma analysis showed that DMH-exposure induced amplified amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta, whereas MS feeding counteracted this effect ...


Mots clés : Colon-rectum; Prévention (Nutrition et prévention)

Chimioprévention

Mené sur 34 887 hommes (durée médiane de suivi : 7,1 ans), cet essai randomisé contrôlé évalue l'effet d'une supplémentation en vitamine E et/ou sélénium sur le risque de cancer de la vessie

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    Mené sur 34 887 hommes (durée médiane de suivi : 7,1 ans), cet essai randomisé contrôlé évalue l'effet d'une supplémentation en vitamine E et/ou sélénium sur le risque de cancer de la vessie

    “Evaluation of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation for the Prevention of Bladder Cancer in SWOG Coordinated SELECT”

    • Lotan, Y.;Goodman, P. J.;Youssef, R. F.;Svatek, R. S.;Shariat, S. F.;Tangen, C. M.;Thompson, I. M., Jr.;Klein, E. A.

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological and biological evidence suggests a preventive effect of selenium and vitamin E on bladder cancer. We assessed the effect of selenium and/or vitamin E on bladder cancer development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the randomized, placebo controlled SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial), which included 34,887 men randomly assigned to 4 groups (selenium, vitamin E, selenium plus vitamin E and placebo) in double-blind fashion between August 22, 2001 and June 24, 2004. The primary end point was bladder cancer incidence, as determined by routine clinical management. RESULTS: During a median followup of 7.1 years (IQR 6.4-8.0) 224 bladder cancer cases were recorded. Patients with bladder cancer were older, and more likely to be white and have a smoking history than those without bladder cancer. Most cancers were urothelial and nonmuscle invasive. There was no significant difference in the bladder cancer incidence between the ...


Mots clés : Vessie; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée sur des xénogreffes de cancer avancé de la prostate, cette étude évalue les effets de quatre flavonolignanes extraits du Chardon-Marie (Silybum marianum) sur l'expression de molécules de signalisation impliquées dans l'angiogenèse tumorale

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    Menée sur des xénogreffes de cancer avancé de la prostate, cette étude évalue les effets de quatre flavonolignanes extraits du Chardon-Marie (Silybum marianum) sur l'expression de molécules de signalisation impliquées dans l'angiogenèse tumorale

    “Angiopreventive Efficacy of Pure Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle Extract against Prostate Cancer: Targeting VEGF-VEGFR Signaling”

    • Deep, Gagan;Gangar, Subhash Chander;Rajamanickam, Subapriya;Raina, Komal;Gu, Mallikarjuna;Agarwal, Chapla;Oberlies, Nicholas H.;Agarwal, Rajesh

    The role of neo-angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PCA) growth and metastasis is well established, but the development of effective and non-toxic pharmacological inhibitors of angiogenesis remains an unaccomplished goal. In this regard, targeting aberrant angiogenesis through non-toxic phytochemicals could be an attractive angiopreventive strategy against PCA. The rationale of the present study was to compare the anti-angiogenic potential of four pure diastereoisomeric flavonolignans, namely silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, which we established previously as biologically active constituents in Milk Thistle extract. Results showed that oral feeding of these flavonolignans (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) effectively inhibit the growth of advanced human PCA DU145 xenografts. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that these flavonolignans inhibit tumor angiogenesis biomarkers (CD31 and nestin) and signaling molecules regulating angiogenesis (VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, ...


Mots clés : Prostate; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée sur une lignée cellulaire humaine de carcinome du côlon et à l'aide d'un modèle murin, cette étude montre que les polysaccaharides de faible poids moléculaire extraits de la pomme peuvent induire l'arrêt du cycle cellulaire des cellules tumorales

  • Low Molecular Weight Apple Polysaccharides Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Tumor
    Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 64 (3), pp. 439-463, 2012 (résumé)
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    Menée sur une lignée cellulaire humaine de carcinome du côlon et à l'aide d'un modèle murin, cette étude montre que les polysaccaharides de faible poids moléculaire extraits de la pomme peuvent induire l'arrêt du cycle cellulaire des cellules tumorales

    “Low Molecular Weight Apple Polysaccharides Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Tumor”

    • Li, Yuhua;Mei, Lin;Niu, Yinbo;Sun, Yang;Huang, Haitao;Li, Qian;Kong, Xianghe;Liu, Li;Li, Zhiquan;Mei, Qibing

    Dietary components play an important role in cancer prevention. Many ingredients from apples have been proven to have antitumor potency. We thus made low molecular weight apple polysaccharides (LMWAP) and evaluated the effects of it on colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of LMWAP on human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) were evaluated using a microarray. Then, cell-cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometric analysis. A colitis-associated colorectal cancer mouse model was used to assess the effect of LMWAP on in vivo CRC prevention. Treatment of HT-29 cells with LMWAP resulted in 333 genes expression over cutoff values (≥2-fold). Further analysis demonstrated that pathways of cell cycle were mainly influenced. At the concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/mL, LMWAP induced a G0/G1 phase block in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent way. In vivo studies revealed that administration of LMWAP could protect ICR mice against CRC effectively. The results of Western blot suggested LMWAP ...


Mots clés : Colon-rectum; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée sur une lignée cellulaire humaine de cancer du poumon, cette étude évalue l'activité antioxydante et antiproliférative d'extraits de graines et de pulpe de fruits du jamelonier (Syzygium cumini)

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    Menée sur une lignée cellulaire humaine de cancer du poumon, cette étude évalue l'activité antioxydante et antiproliférative d'extraits de graines et de pulpe de fruits du jamelonier (Syzygium cumini)

    “Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Anthocyanin/Ellagitannin-Enriched Extracts From Syzygium cumini L. (Jamun, the Indian Blackberry)”

    • Aqil, Farrukh;Gupta, Akash;Munagala, Radha;Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash;Kausar, Hina;Sharma, Ram Jee;Singh, Inder Pal;Gupta, Ramesh C.

    Colored fruits, particularly berries, are highly chemoprotective because of their antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory activities. We report the cancer chemoprotective potential of Syzygium cumini L., commonly known as jamun or Indian blackberry. Anthocyanins and other polyphenolics were extracted with acidic ethanol and enriched by amberlite XAD7/HP20 (1:1). The pulp powder was found to contain 0.54% anthocyanins, 0.17% ellagic acid/ellagitannins, and 1.15% total polyphenolics. Jamun seed contained no detectable anthocyanins but had higher amounts of ellagic acid/ellagitannins (0.5%) and total polyphenolics (2.7%) than the pulp powder. Upon acid hydrolysis, the pulp extract yielded 5 anthocyanidins by HPLC: malvidin (44.4%), petunidin (24.2%), delphinidin (20.3%), cyanidin (6.6%), and peonidin (2.2%). Extracts of both jamun pulp (1,445 ± 64 ?mol of trolox equivalent (TE)/g) and seeds (3,379 ± 151 ?M of TE/g) showed high oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Their high ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention)

Menée auprès de 213 participants, cette étude évalue l'intérêt d'un outil associant un questionnaire basé sur l'échelle de Likert et une modélisation des changements comportementaux pour identifier les habitudes concernant l'exposition solaire et les comportements adoptés pour se protéger du soleil

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    Menée auprès de 213 participants, cette étude évalue l'intérêt d'un outil associant un questionnaire basé sur l'échelle de Likert et une modélisation des changements comportementaux pour identifier les habitudes concernant l'exposition solaire et les comportements adoptés pour se protéger du soleil

    “Measuring sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour using a comprehensive scoring instrument – An illustration of a possible model based on Likert scale scorings and on estimation of readiness to increase sun protection”

    • Falk, M.;Anderson, C. D.

    Background: Few attempts to present a comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection have been made. The present paper aims to describe a possible set of questions suitable for such an instrument, comprising the most important aspects of sun exposure and protection. Methods: The material from a previously performed intervention study, using a questionnaire based on Likert scales and on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), was utilised. 213 primary healthcare patients filled in the questionnaire and were randomised into two groups receiving sun protection advice, in Group 1 in letter-form, and in Group 2 orally during a doctor's consultation. In the original study, increased sun protection/readiness to increase sun protection was demonstrated for several items in Group 2, at six months. To compose a comprehensive scoring instrument, five questions concerning sun exposure/protection (intentional tanning, sunscreen use, choice of SPF, number of ...


Mots clés : Peau (hors mélanome); Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

A partir d'une enquête en ligne auprès de directeurs et d'oncologues de 58 centres labellisés par le National Cancer Institute, cette étude américaine évalue leurs pratiques en matière de traitement du tabagisme

  • Tobacco Use Treatment at the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Designated Cancer Centers
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research, sous presse, 2012 (résumé)
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    A partir d'une enquête en ligne auprès de directeurs et d'oncologues de 58 centres labellisés par le National Cancer Institute, cette étude américaine évalue leurs pratiques en matière de traitement du tabagisme

    “Tobacco Use Treatment at the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Designated Cancer Centers”

    • Goldstein, Adam O.;Ripley-Moffitt, Carol E.;Pathman, Donald E.;Patsakham, Katharine M.

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of cancer, and continued use after cancer diagnosis puts patients at greater risk for adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for cancer recurrence. This study surveyed National Cancer Institute (NCI)–designated Cancer Centers to assess the availability of tobacco use treatment (TUT) services.Methods: Directors and oncology providers of 58 NCI-designated Cancer Centers received invitations to participate in an online survey. The questionnaire asked about attitudes, awareness, policies, and practices related to TUT; barriers to treatment provision; and factors likely to increase services.Results: All 58 Cancer Centers participated. Twelve (20.7%) Centers reported no TUT services for their patients. Of the remainder, 34 (58.6%) reported a TUT program within their Center and 12 (20.7%) reported external TUT services in their health care system or affiliated university. Only 62% of Centers reported routinely providing tobacco ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

Menée sur 13 143 participants, cette étude canadienne évalue, à l'issue d'une période de 6 mois, l'efficacité et la portée d'un programme de sevrage tabagique consistant à envoyer par courrier, après une brève intervention téléphonique, un traitement de substitution à la nicotine

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    Menée sur 13 143 participants, cette étude canadienne évalue, à l'issue d'une période de 6 mois, l'efficacité et la portée d'un programme de sevrage tabagique consistant à envoyer par courrier, après une brève intervention téléphonique, un traitement de substitution à la nicotine

    “Reach and effectiveness of mailed nicotine replacement therapy for smokers: 6-month outcomes in a naturalistic exploratory study”

    • Zawertailo, Laurie;Dragonetti, Rosa;Bondy, Susan J;Victor, J Charles;Selby, Peter

    Background There are important inequities in smoker access to clinic-based smoking cessation services. Low barrier high-reach interventions are proposed as solutions to these inequities. Although effective, telephone quitlines, which provide multi-session counselling but no medication, have low utilization with high attrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), brief advice and self-help materials on quit attempts and 6-month quit rates in motivated smokers.Methods In this open-label naturalistic study, 14 000 treatments of 5 weeks in duration of either nicotine patch (n=10 000) or nicotine gum (n=4000) were made available to all eligible adult smokers in Ontario, Canada, who called a toll-free number to register with the STOP (Smoking Treatment for Ontario Patients) Study and receive a single brief intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported abstinence rates at 6 months post-treatment ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

A partir d'une enquête en ligne auprès de 783 fumeurs adultes et de 510 jeunes, cette étude américaine évalue l'efficacité perçue de 36 messages anti-tabac illustrés sur les paquets de cigarettes, tels qu'ils sont proposés par la Food and Drug Administration

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    A partir d'une enquête en ligne auprès de 783 fumeurs adultes et de 510 jeunes, cette étude américaine évalue l'efficacité perçue de 36 messages anti-tabac illustrés sur les paquets de cigarettes, tels qu'ils sont proposés par la Food and Drug Administration

    “Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs in the United States: An Experimental Evaluation of the Proposed FDA Warnings”

    • Hammond, David;Reid, Jessica L.;Driezen, Pete;Boudreau, Christian

    Introduction: In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed 36 proposed health warnings for cigarette packages, from which 9 were subsequently selected for implementation. The current study aimed to evaluate the perceived efficacy of the 36 proposed FDA warnings.Methods: Web-based surveys were conducted with 783 adult smokers and 510 youth in United States. Participants were randomized to view and rate two sets of 6–7 warnings, each set corresponding to one of nine health effect statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. Warnings included all 36 FDA-proposed warnings and additional warnings for comparison.Results: Youth and adults rated individual warnings similarly; in all cases where differences were found, youth perceived warnings as more effective. Comparisons on specific elements indicated that warnings were perceived as more effective if they were: full color (vs. black and white), featured real people (vs. comic book style), contained graphic images ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

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