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Accueil Nota Bene Cancer V2 Numéro 125 du 28 February 2012 Prévention

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Nota Bene Cancer Numéro 125 du 28 February 2012 RSS

Prévention

Nutrition et prévention

Menée entre 1986 et 2008 auprès de 47 909 participants de l'étude prospective "Health Professionals Follow-up Study", cette étude évalue l'association entre l'apport hydrique total et le risque de cancer de la vessie lié à une exposition à des agents carcinogènes (823 cas)

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    Menée entre 1986 et 2008 auprès de 47 909 participants de l'étude prospective "Health Professionals Follow-up Study", cette étude évalue l'association entre l'apport hydrique total et le risque de cancer de la vessie lié à une exposition à des agents carcinogènes (823 cas)

    “Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort”

    • Zhou, Jiachen;Smith, Scott;Giovannucci, Edward;Michaud, Dominique S.

    It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the ...


Mots clés : Vessie; Prévention (Nutrition et prévention)

Menée in vitro, cette étude évalue l'efficacité du miel de Manuka, d'huiles riches en oméga-3 et de composés issus de pousses de broccoli pour réduire une inflammation associée à Helicobacter pylori

  • Using Food to Reduce H. pylori-associated Inflammation
    Phytotherapy research , sous presse, 2012 (résumé)
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    Menée in vitro, cette étude évalue l'efficacité du miel de Manuka, d'huiles riches en oméga-3 et de composés issus de pousses de broccoli pour réduire une inflammation associée à Helicobacter pylori

    “Using Food to Reduce H. pylori-associated Inflammation”

    • Keenan, J. I.;Salm, N.;Wallace, A. J.;Hampton, M. B.

    Inflammation is widely recognized as a risk factor for gastric H. pylori-associated disease and disruption of this process provides a potential target for intervention. Using an in vitro system, broccoli sprouts, manuka honey and omega-3 oil, singly and in combination, were screened for their ability to limit H. pylori-associated inflammation. Each food significantly attenuated the release of IL-8 by H. pylori-infected cells, although the magnitude of this effect was variable. Only broccoli sprouts (0.125 mg/mL, w/v) were able to inhibit IL-8 release in response to TNFalpha, suggesting it acted by a different mechanism to the other two foods. The combination of manuka honey (1.25%, v/v) with omega-3 oil (0.006%, v/v) failed further to reduce IL-8 levels below those observed with honey alone, but the same concentrations of omega-3 oil and manuka honey independently enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of the isothiocyanate-rich broccoli sprouts. The results suggest that in the future ...


Mots clés : Estomac; Prévention (Nutrition et prévention)

Chimioprévention

Menée in vitro et sur une xénogreffe de carcinome hépatocellulaire, cette étude montre que le célastrol, une molécule active extraite de l'écorce de la racine de Tripterygium wilfordii, supprime la croissance tumorale et induit l'apoptose des cellules cancéreuses en inhibant la signalisation STAT3/JAK2

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    Menée in vitro et sur une xénogreffe de carcinome hépatocellulaire, cette étude montre que le célastrol, une molécule active extraite de l'écorce de la racine de Tripterygium wilfordii, supprime la croissance tumorale et induit l'apoptose des cellules cancéreuses en inhibant la signalisation STAT3/JAK2

    “Celastrol suppresses growth and induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma through the modulation of STAT3/JAK2 signaling cascade in vitro and vivo”

    • Rajendran, Peramaiyan;Li, Feng;Shanmugam, Muthu;Kannaiyan, Radhamani;Goh, Jen Nee;Wong, Kwong Fai;Wang, Wei;Khin, Ester;Tergaonkar, Vinay;Kumar, Alan Prem;Luk, John M;Sethi, Gautam

    Cumulative evidences(s) have established that the constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis and thus can contribute directly to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, novel agents that can inhibit STAT3 activation have potential for both prevention and treatment of HCC. The effect of celastrol on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, STAT3-regulated gene products, cellular proliferation and apoptosis was investigated. The in vivo effect of celastrol on the growth of human HCC xenograft tumors in athymic nu/nu mice was also examined. We observed that celastrol inhibited both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation and the suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases c-Src, as well as Janus-activated kinase-1, and -2. Vanadate treatment reversed the celastrol -induced modulation of STAT3, ...


Mots clés : Foie; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée sur des rats, cette étude montre que les tocophérols δ et γ inhibent la carcinogenèse du côlon associée à l'azoxyméthane

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    Menée sur des rats, cette étude montre que les tocophérols δ et γ inhibent la carcinogenèse du côlon associée à l'azoxyméthane

    “δ- and γ-Tocopherols, but not α-Tocopherol, Inhibit Colon Carcinogenesis in Azoxymethane-Treated F344 Rats”

    • Guan, Fei;Li, Guangxun;Liu, Ba;Lee, Mao-Jung;Yang, Zhihong;Chen, Yu-Kuo;Lin, Yong;Shih, Weichung J.;Yang, Chung S.

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, 7 weeks old, were given 2 weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of ...


Mots clés : Colon-rectum; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Cet article passe en revue les études récentes in vitro et in vivo concernant les effets épigénétiques de composés alimentaires (folates, polyphénols, sélénium, rétinoïdes, acides gras, isothiocyanates et composés allyliques) dans la prévention des cancers

  • Targeting the epigenome with bioactive food components for cancer prevention
    Journal of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, Vol. 4 (5), pp. 275-92, 2012 (résumé)
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    Cet article passe en revue les études récentes in vitro et in vivo concernant les effets épigénétiques de composés alimentaires (folates, polyphénols, sélénium, rétinoïdes, acides gras, isothiocyanates et composés allyliques) dans la prévention des cancers

    “Targeting the epigenome with bioactive food components for cancer prevention”

    • Ong, T. P.;Moreno, F. S.;Ross, S. A.

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Politiques et programmes de prévention

Menée à Montréal à partir de questionnaires auprès de 1 293 élèves (âge :12-13 ans), cette étude évalue l'association entre l'interdiction de fumer dans les écoles, les magasins et les restaurants et l'initiation tabagique chez les adolescents

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    Menée à Montréal à partir de questionnaires auprès de 1 293 élèves (âge :12-13 ans), cette étude évalue l'association entre l'interdiction de fumer dans les écoles, les magasins et les restaurants et l'initiation tabagique chez les adolescents

    “Does Intolerance of Smoking at School, or in Restaurants or Corner Stores Decrease Cigarette Use Initiation in Adolescents?”

    • Pabayo, Roman;O’Loughlin, Jennifer;Barnett, Tracie A.;Cohen, Joanna E.;Gauvin, Lise

    Introduction: In addition to individual-level characteristics, the social and physical environment may influence the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. The objective of this paper is to describe the association between smoking intolerance in schools, and in restaurants and corner stores located near schools, and initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents.Methods: Data on cigarette smoking were collected in self-report questionnaires every 3 months from 1999 to 2005 in a sample of 1,293 Grade 7 students in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada. Baseline never-smokers (n = 868) were retained for analysis. School administrators completed questionnaires on tobacco control policies and activities within schools. Data on access to tobacco products and smoking restrictions in restaurants and corner stores located in school neighborhoods were collected through direct observation. Schools, restaurants, and corner stores were classified as smoking tolerant or intolerant. ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Politiques et programmes de prévention)

Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention)

Menée sur 2 602 patients présentant des polypes adénomateux du côlon (durée médiane de suivi : 15,8 ans), cette étude évalue l'effet à long terme d'une polypectomie coloscopique sur la mortalité par cancer colorectal

  • Colonoscopic Polypectomy and Long-Term Prevention of Colorectal-Cancer Deaths
    New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 366 (8), pp. 687-696, 2012 (résumé)
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    Menée sur 2 602 patients présentant des polypes adénomateux du côlon (durée médiane de suivi : 15,8 ans), cette étude évalue l'effet à long terme d'une polypectomie coloscopique sur la mortalité par cancer colorectal

    “Colonoscopic Polypectomy and Long-Term Prevention of Colorectal-Cancer Deaths”

    • Zauber, Ann G.;Winawer, Sidney J.;O'Brien, Michael J.;Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris;van Ballegooijen, Marjolein;Hankey, Benjamin F.;Shi, Weiji;Bond, John H.;Schapiro, Melvin;Panish, Joel F.;Stewart, Edward T.;Waye, Jerome D.

    Background : In the National Polyp Study (NPS), colorectal cancer was prevented by colonoscopic removal of adenomatous polyps. We evaluated the long-term effect of colonoscopic polypectomy in a study on mortality from colorectal cancer. Methods : We included in this analysis all patients prospectively referred for initial colonoscopy (between 1980 and 1990) at NPS clinical centers who had polyps (adenomas and nonadenomas). The National Death Index was used to identify deaths and to determine the cause of death; follow-up time was as long as 23 years. Mortality from colorectal cancer among patients with adenomas removed was compared with the expected incidence-based mortality from colorectal cancer in the general population, as estimated from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, and with the observed mortality from colorectal cancer among patients with nonadenomatous polyps (internal control group). Results : Among 2602 patients who had adenomas removed during ...


Mots clés : Colon-rectum; Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

Mené durant 6 mois sur 135 fumeurs en bonne santé, cet essai évalue l'effet d'une réduction progressive de la quantité de nicotine dans les cigarettes sur la dépendance tabagique et le niveau plasmatique ou urinaire de marqueurs de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac et de biomarqueurs cardiovasculaires

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    Mené durant 6 mois sur 135 fumeurs en bonne santé, cet essai évalue l'effet d'une réduction progressive de la quantité de nicotine dans les cigarettes sur la dépendance tabagique et le niveau plasmatique ou urinaire de marqueurs de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac et de biomarqueurs cardiovasculaires

    “Smoking Behavior and Exposure to Tobacco Toxicants During 6 months of Smoking Progressively Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes”

    • Benowitz, Neal L.;Dains, Katherine M.;Hall, Sharon;Stewart, Susan L.;Wilson, Margaret;Dempsey, Delia;Jacob, Peyton

    Background Recent federal legislation gives the FDA authority to regulate the nicotine content of cigarettes. A nationwide strategy for progressive reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential way to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects. Methods 135 healthy smokers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes followed by 5 types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each smoked for one month. A control group smoked their own brand of cigarettes for the same period of time. Results Nicotine intake, as indicated by plasma cotinine concentration, declined progressively as the nicotine content of ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Ressources et infrastructures (Prévention))

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