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Accueil Nota Bene Cancer V2 Numéro 108 du 18 October 2011 Prévention

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Prévention

Comportements individuels

Menée sur 115 482 patientes, cette étude prospective de la cohorte "Nurses'Health Study" évalue l'association entre une exposition aux ultraviolets, la vitamine D et le risque de lymphome non hodgkinien

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    Menée sur 115 482 patientes, cette étude prospective de la cohorte "Nurses'Health Study" évalue l'association entre une exposition aux ultraviolets, la vitamine D et le risque de lymphome non hodgkinien

    “Sunlight exposure, vitamin D, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Nurses’ Health Study”

    • Bertrand, Kimberly;Chang, Ellen;Abel, Gregory;Zhang, Shumin;Spiegelman, Donna;Qureshi, Abrar;Laden, Francine

    Purpose Case–control studies suggest increased sun exposure reduces non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Evidence from prospective cohort studies, however, is limited and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and NHL in a nationwide cohort of women, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Methods Between 1976 and 2006, we identified 1064 incident NHL cases among 115,482 women in the prospective NHS. Exposures assessed included average annual UV-B flux based on residence at various times during life, vitamin D intake, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of all NHL and histologic subtypes using Cox proportional hazards models. Results NHL risk was increased for women residing in areas of high ambient UV radiation (UV-B flux >113 R–B count × 10 −4 ) compared to those with lower exposure (<113), with positive linear trends at all ...


Mots clés : Lymphome; Prévention (Comportements individuels)

Nutrition et prévention

Menée en Jamaïque à l'aide d'un questionnaire, cette étude (209 cas et 226 témoins) évalue l'association entre la composition sanguine en acides gras, le régime alimentaire et le risque de cancer de la prostate

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    Menée en Jamaïque à l'aide d'un questionnaire, cette étude (209 cas et 226 témoins) évalue l'association entre la composition sanguine en acides gras, le régime alimentaire et le risque de cancer de la prostate

    “Associations of whole-blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Jamaica”

    • Jackson, Maria;Walker, Susan;Simpson-Smith, Candace;Lindsay, Carole;Smith, Garret;McFarlane-Anderson, Norma;Bennett, Franklyn;Coard, Kathleen;Aiken, William;Tulloch, Trevor;Paul, Tomlin;Wan, Robert

    Objective To investigate the association of whole-blood fatty acids and reported intakes of fats with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Design Case–control study of 209 men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 226 cancer-free men attending the same urology clinics. Whole-blood fatty acid composition (mol%) was measured by gas chromatography and diet assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Results High whole-blood oleic acid composition (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: OR, 0.37; CI, 0.14–0.0.98) and moderate palmitic acid proportions (tertile 2: OR, 0.29; CI, 0.12–0.70) (tertile 3: OR, 0.53; CI, 0.19–1.54) were inversely related to risk of PCa, whereas men with high linolenic acid proportions were at increased likelihood of PCa (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: OR, 2.06; 1.29–3.27). Blood myristic, stearic and palmitoleic acids were not associated with PCa. Higher intakes of dietary MUFA were inversely related to prostate cancer (tertile 3 vs. ...


Mots clés : Prostate; Prévention (Nutrition et prévention)

Chimioprévention

Menée in vitro sur une lignée cellulaire humaine, cette étude montre que l'extrait de houblon, riche en composés phénoliques, inhibe le métabolisme oxydant des estrogènes et la transformation maligne des cellules épithéliales mammaires

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    Menée in vitro sur une lignée cellulaire humaine, cette étude montre que l'extrait de houblon, riche en composés phénoliques, inhibe le métabolisme oxydant des estrogènes et la transformation maligne des cellules épithéliales mammaires

    “Hops (Humulus lupulus) Inhibits Oxidative Estrogen metabolism and Estrogen-Induced Malignant Transformation in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells(MCF-10A)”

    • Hemachandra, L.P.Madhubhani P.;Chandrasena, R. Esala P.;Chen, Shao-Nong;Main, Matthew;Lankin, David C.;Scism, Robert A.;Dietz, Birgit M.;Pauli, Guido F.;Thatcher, Gregory R.;Bolton, Judy L.

    Long-term exposure to estrogens including those in traditional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers. As a result, women are turning to over-the-counter (OTC) botanical dietary supplements such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and hops (Humulus lupulus) as natural alternatives to HRT. The two major mechanisms which likely contribute to estrogen and/or HRT cancer risk are: the estrogen receptor (ER) mediated hormonal pathway; and, the chemical carcinogenesis pathway involving formation of estrogen quinones that damage DNA and proteins, hence initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Since OTC botanical HRT alternatives are in widespread use they may have the potential for chemopreventive effects on estrogen carcinogenic pathways in vivo. Therefore the effect of OTC botanicals on estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was studied. Cytochrome P450 catalyzed hydroxylation of estradiol at the 4-position leads to ...


Mots clés : Sein; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Mené sur 90 518 hommes, cet essai international multicentrique évalue sur le long terme l'association entre une supplémentation en vitamine E ou/et en sélénium et le risque de cancer de la prostate

  • Vitamin E and the Risk of Prostate Cancer
    JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 306 (14), pp. 1549-1556, 2011 (résumé)
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    Mené sur 90 518 hommes, cet essai international multicentrique évalue sur le long terme l'association entre une supplémentation en vitamine E ou/et en sélénium et le risque de cancer de la prostate

    “Vitamin E and the Risk of Prostate Cancer”

    • Klein, Eric A.;Thompson, Ian M.;Tangen, Catherine M.;Crowley, John J.;Lucia, M. Scott;Goodman, Phyllis J.;Minasian, Lori M.;Ford, Leslie G.;Parnes, Howard L.;Gaziano, J. Michael;Karp, Daniel D.;Lieber, Michael M.;Walther, Philip J.;Klotz, Laurence;Parsons, J. Kellogg;Chin, Joseph L.;Darke, Amy K.;Lippman, Scott M.;Goodman, Gary E.;Meyskens, Frank L.;Baker, Laurence H.

    Context The initial report of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found no reduction in risk of prostate cancer with either selenium or vitamin E supplements but a statistically nonsignificant increase in prostate cancer risk with vitamin E. Longer follow-up and more prostate cancer events provide further insight into the relationship of vitamin E and prostate cancer.Objective To determine the long-term effect of vitamin E and selenium on risk of prostate cancer in relatively healthy men.Design, Setting, and Participants A total of 35 533 men from 427 study sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico were randomized between August 22, 2001, and June 24, 2004. Eligibility criteria included a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4.0 ng/mL or less, a digital rectal examination not suspicious for prostate cancer, and age 50 years or older for black men and 55 years or older for all others. The primary analysis included 34 887 men who were randomly assigned ...


Mots clés : Prostate; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Cette étude internationale (4 309 cas et 58 301 témoins) évalue l'association entre l'utilisation d'aspirine et d'anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et le risque de cancer du poumon

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    Cette étude internationale (4 309 cas et 58 301 témoins) évalue l'association entre l'utilisation d'aspirine et d'anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et le risque de cancer du poumon

    “Aspirin and NSAID use and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)”

    • McCormack, Valerie;Hung, Rayjean;Brenner, Darren;Bickeböller, Heike;Rosenberger, Albert;Muscat, Joshua;Lazarus, Philip;Tjønneland, Anne;Friis, Søren;Christiani, David;Chun, Eun-mi;Le Marchand, Loic;Rennert, Gad;Rennert, Hedy;Andrew, Angeline;Orlow, Irene;Park, Bernard;Boffetta, Paolo;Duell, Eric

    Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) lower lung cancer risk. Methods We analysed pooled individual-level data from seven case–control and one cohort study in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Relative risks for lung cancer associated with self-reported history of aspirin and other NSAID use were estimated within individual studies using logistic regression or proportional hazards models, adjusted for packyears of smoking, age, calendar period, ethnicity and education and were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 4,309 lung cancer cases (mean age at diagnosis 65 years, 45% adenocarcinoma and 22% squamous-cell carcinoma) and 58,301 non-cases/controls were included. Amongst controls, 34% had used NSAIDs in the past (81% of them used aspirin). After adjustment for negative confounding by smoking, ever-NSAID use (affirmative answer to the study-specific question on NSAID use) was associated ...


Mots clés : Poumon; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée sur 30 patients présentant un risque normal de cancer colorectal, cette étude évalue les effets chimiopréventifs de l'extrait de racine de gingembre sur le niveau d'expression d'eicosanoïdes dans la muqueuse intestinale

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    Menée sur 30 patients présentant un risque normal de cancer colorectal, cette étude évalue les effets chimiopréventifs de l'extrait de racine de gingembre sur le niveau d'expression d'eicosanoïdes dans la muqueuse intestinale

    “Phase II Study of the Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Eicosanoids in Colon Mucosa in People at Normal Risk for Colorectal Cancer”

    • Zick, Suzanna M.;Turgeon, D. Kim;Vareed, Shaiju K.;Ruffin, Mack T.;Litzinger, Amie J.;Wright, Benjamin D.;Alrawi, Sara;Normolle, Daniel P.;Djuric, Zora;Brenner, Dean E.

    Inhibitors of COX indicate that upregulation of inflammatory eicosanoids produced by COX, and in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are early events in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Ginger has shown downregulation of COX in vitro and decreased incidence/multiplicity of adenomas in rats. This study was conducted to determine if 2.0 g/d of ginger could decrease the levels of PGE2, 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), in the colon mucosa of healthy volunteers. To investigate this aim, we randomized 30 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and day 28 was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per protein or per free arachidonic acid. There were no significant differences in mean percent change between baseline and day 28 for any of the ...


Mots clés : Colon-rectum; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Menée in vitro sur des cellules de mélanome humain, cette étude montre que les catéchines du thé vert, molécules de la famille des flavonoïdes, réduisent la migration et la progression des cellules tumorales en inhibant l'expression des récepteurs de la cyclo-oxygénase 2 et de la prostaglandine 2 et la transition épithélio-mésenchymateuse

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    Menée in vitro sur des cellules de mélanome humain, cette étude montre que les catéchines du thé vert, molécules de la famille des flavonoïdes, réduisent la migration et la progression des cellules tumorales en inhibant l'expression des récepteurs de la cyclo-oxygénase 2 et de la prostaglandine 2 et la transition épithélio-mésenchymateuse

    “Green Tea Catechins Reduce Invasive Potential of Human Melanoma Cells by Targeting COX-2, PGE2 Receptors and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition”

    • Singh, Tripti;Katiyar, Santosh K.

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin disease and a leading cause of death from skin disease due to its highly metastatic ability. To develop more effective chemopreventive agents for the prevention of melanoma, we have determined the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model. Employing cell invasion assays, we found that the inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on the cell migration were in the order of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)>(-)-epigallocatechin>(-)-epicatechin-3-gallate>(-)-gallocatechin>(-)-epicatechin. Treatment of A375 and Hs294t cells with EGCG resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration or invasion of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, ...


Mots clés : Mélanome; Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Cet article fait le point sur les études concernant le rôle des cyclo-oxygénases, des lipoxygénases et de leurs produits dérivés dans la tumorigenèse et discute les perspectives offertes par le ciblage de ces enzymes dans la prévention et le traitement des cancers

  • Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases in cancer
    Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, pp. 1-18, 2011 (résumé)
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    Cet article fait le point sur les études concernant le rôle des cyclo-oxygénases, des lipoxygénases et de leurs produits dérivés dans la tumorigenèse et discute les perspectives offertes par le ciblage de ces enzymes dans la prévention et le traitement des cancers

    “Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases in cancer”

    • Schneider, Claus;Pozzi, Ambra

    Cancer initiation and progression are multistep events that require cell proliferation, migration, extravasation to the blood or lymphatic vessels, arrest to the metastatic site, and ultimately secondary growth. Tumor cell functions at both primary or secondary sites are controlled by many different factors, including growth factors and their receptors, chemokines, nuclear receptors, cell–cell interactions, cell–matrix interactions, as well as oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid. The observation that cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases and their arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid products (prostanoids and HETEs) are expressed and produced by tumor cells, together with the finding that these enzymes can regulate cell growth, survival, migration, and invasion, has prompted investigators to analyze the roles of these enzymes in cancer progression. In this review, we focus on the contribution of cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids to tumor cell function in vitro ...


Mots clés : Cancer (général); Prévention (Chimioprévention)

Politiques et programmes de prévention

Cet article analyse le débat politique en vigueur aux Etats-Unis à propos de la vaccination obligatoire contre le papillomavirus humain

  • Mandatory HPV Vaccination and Political Debate
    JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, sous presse, 2011 (commentaire en libre accès)
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    Cet article analyse le débat politique en vigueur aux Etats-Unis à propos de la vaccination obligatoire contre le papillomavirus humain

    “Mandatory HPV Vaccination and Political Debate”

    • Gostin, Lawrence O.


Mots clés : Col de l'utérus; Prévention (Politiques et programmes de prévention)

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